Alu Using Logic Gates





Fall Semester 2007. The results show that the proposed design consume less power using less number of transistors, while achieving full swing operation compared to previous work. Like we mentioned earlier, the ALU can do a bunch of other things just using logic gates. Keywords— Reversible circuit design, 2's Complement, Comparator, Adder, Subtractor, Multiplier, Revers. Nevertheless, these kind of circuits find their application in the field of computers as a part of arithmetic and logic (ALU) unit. PDF | On Jan 1, 2017, A. gate chosen for ALU design should be able to maximize the type of logical operations it can realize while minimizing the number of select lines and logical output lines, cost and delay. Demultiplexer is also used in serial to parallel converter. 17, shows an implementation that omits the jump (j) instruction. The simulation, comparison and analysis of existing logic and arithmetic units have been done, including logic AND gate, logic OR gate, logic XOR gate, logic NOT gate, multiplexer, full adder, multiplier and so on. control different logic circuits like the ALU and memory to perform these operations. In this paper, the authors propose an architecture for power efficient Arithmetic Logic Unit circuits using Reversible Gates. Reversible gates namely TSG gate performs 1-bit addition with carry. 3 Design of a 4-bit ALU using Proteus. there will never be two AND gates producing a logic one at the same time (a one-hot encoded output). A logic unit performing 8 bit logic operations was built using logic cells available in the IC cell library and was found to have a high operating frequency close to 1GHz. 2 : 4 Decoder using Logical Gates (Verilog CODE). For an N bit vectored output, N number of multiplexers are to be cascaded together in parallel. It can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic elements like optics, molecule etc. Their purpose is to perform the basic (though still complex) binary arithmetic described in Module 1. The switch is closed, or the MOSFET is turned on, if electric current can flow readily from the source to the drain. An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. Before watching it's helpful to understand: - How a binary adde. Assume the XOR gate is implemented using 4 NAND gates as shown below. A New ALU chip design is proposed using D3L. This paper considers and designed sub-blocks such as Adder/subtraction block, 4-bit multiplier, Magnitude Comparator and Multiplexers using Proteus. Synthesis of 16-bit ALU using Reversible Logic Gates", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering. Digital adders are mostly used in computer's ALU (Arithmetic logic unit) to compute addition. An Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs Arithmetic operations on input numbers like Addition, Subtraction, Division, Multiplication, & digital Gates operations like AND, OR, NOT, or any other operation you want. This paper utilizes a new 4 * 4 reversible gate called TSG gate to build the components of a primitive reversible/quantum ALU. Euclid’s and Stein’s algorithms. 4 AOI Logic. decoder & T-gates, as against three. An ALU or an Arithmetic Logic Unit is the part of any microprocessor that does the arithmetic and logical operations. The Arithmetic and Logic Unit A simplified ALU is illustrated in Fig 5. 24, includes the jump instruction. The circuit of full adder using only NAND gates is shown below. code 100) 6) 1's Complement of B (op. In the actual design of ALU using reversible gates seven basic reversible gates are used. paper, a novel four input reversible logic gate is pro-posed which exhibits less quantum cost and garbage outputs for a high computation intensive process like Arithmetic and Logic Operations. babic Presentation F 2 ALU Control 32 32 32 Result A B 32-bit ALU • Our ALU should be able to perform functions: - logical and function - logical or function. Hence, the clock can be provided to that. An ALU is used as the basis of a microprocessor and enables the microprocessor to evaluate arithmetic expressions in binary. Owing to its unique technique of one-to-one mapping between the inputs and the corresponding outputs, the reversible logic gates are now finding profound as well as promising applications in. Create logic circuit to simulate it or use any of the pre-loaded designs to simulate. While you can always implement a truth table by ORing ANDed terms, with NOTs in the right places, it's usually not the most efficient. Left shift: the Generate LU is set to the desired logic function,. 1 Latches and Flip-Flops: SR Latch: Clocked SR Latch: D Latch: Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop: Verilog Examples: Example 37 – Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop. This is the same result as using the two 2-bit adders to make a 4-bit adder and then using two 4-bit adders to make an 8-bit adder or re-duplicating ladder logic and updating the numbers. It can be concluded that hybrid SET-CMOS based Reversible logic is better in operation in contrast to conventional CMOS design and realizes the target of low power expenditure. Explaining The Operation Of The 74181 ALU. Binary number 0 is represented by 'OFF' and Binary Number '1' is represented by 'ON' state in an integrated circuit. Now, let us discuss about the Logic gates come under each category one by one. In our video we take 8 LED's as output packed in 7- segment package. KEYWORDS: logic unit, arithmetic unit, shift unit, arithimatic and logic unit. This thesis will discuss on FPGA design style using an 8-bit ALU as design hardware. My ALU is about as simple as one can be as it can only add and subtract 8 bit numbers, but as we’ll see even this is pretty complicated when you are doing it with quad-NAND gates. The latest ALU design featured two Logic Units, set between the Adder and the inputs. TAKE A LOOK : FLIP FLOPS. For an N bit vectored output, N number of multiplexers are to be cascaded together in parallel. \$\begingroup\$ For a larger number of bits would using alternating NOR and NAND gates make sense? E. FOUR ~IT CMD8 ALU Frank Leilich 5th Year Microelectronic Engineering Student Rochester Institute of Technology ABSTRACT A four bit CMOS arithmetic logic unit was designed. Demultiplexer is also used in serial to parallel converter. Design And Implementation Of 64 Bit ALU Using VHDL Conclusion: Behavioural modelling and structural modelling provide the implementation of 64 bit ALU. Five control signals, w i (i = 0, 4), de ne the opcodes for the ALU (see Table 2). (Reminiscent of the old IBM 1620 which used a table lookup in core memory for arithmetic. In synchronous logic (logic that is driven by a clock signal), the critical path is the slowest logic path in the circuit. Main aim of using reversible gate is that we can easily get input from output. VHDL code for the ALU is fully presented. Digital Design ALU using logic gates. Analysis focus on reduce the time delay so this 2-bit ALU by using the latest version of Pspice software where the full-adder is also designed by logic gate. This version of the ALU implements Arithmetic, Logic, and Branch operations, as well as incrementing the PC and the bypass of a value. This 2-bit ALU has been designed based on 8 arithmetic operations and four logic operations. This is correct OR gate behavior, showing that this circuit operates correctly for all possible input states. Simple PWM using inverters (logic gates or comparators). - 07adnan/64-Bit-ALU. Multiplexers are not limited to just switching a number of different input lines or channels to one common single output. You must package the ALU so that it conforms to the interface given in Figure 1. AU and LU by using a multiplexer Figure 14. ) is used to. Design of Low Power Arithmetic and Logic Unit using Reversible Logic Gates International Journal of VLSI System Design and Communication Systems Volume. Status Bits. ALU devices, an addition cost of 2 is incurred per bit in order to propagate S1 and S2 to other bits. In this lab, we are supposed to design and build a multi-page schematic for the operation of an 4-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of performing addition (ADD), negation (NOT), and bitwise AND (using Mutlimedia Logic). Multi- input floating gate (MIFG) transistors have been promising in realizing increased functionality on a chip. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) • Gates are electronics devices that implement simple • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Circuit is called as reversible if we have one to one mapping of input and output values. Now design a circuit to create the encoder with a single 74’153 chip and, only if necessary, the gates available on 74’00 and/or 74’02 ICs. VHDL code for the ALU is fully presented. From the lowest level NMOS and PMOS, we designed the logic gates needed to form the different blocks of our 4-bit ALU. Owing to its unique technique of one-to-one mapping between the inputs and the corresponding outputs, the reversible logic gates are now finding profound as well as promising applications in. The power dissipation in terms of. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation. 05 x 32 + 0. The main aim of the design in this paper is to improve the ALU. Introduction. Advancement in VLSI technology has allowed following Moore's law for doubling component density on a silicon chip after every three years. These are the arithmetic operations (addition and subtraction) and the logical operations (AND, OR, XOR and NOT) that are done during execution of the corresponding machine instructions. Based on the efficiency of FRET between Acf and RhB in presence and absence of DNA at different pH, two molecular logic gates have been proposed, namely XOR and OR logic gates. Implement the logic for the Control signal 1. Arithmetic Logical Unit is the very important subsystem in the digital system design. In this video we go over the design for the Arithmetic and Logic Unit for our 8-bit computer. Jatin Jawale. You will then build a memory with four lines capable of storing four bits per line. inverter 5404/7404. The four select inputs (S0, S1, S2, and S3) select the desired logical or arithmetic functions, which. Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abstract 1. The Digital Logic course is designed for first-semester university students, but it is suitable for anyone who wants to learn digital design and engineering. performance and power dissipation. Practice Test 1 Every Boolean function can be constructed from only: a. Once I had completed the basic logic gates, I could create the more advanced logic structures. 5) 4 input NOR operation using dynamic NOR gate (op. A new VLSI architecture for ALU using reversible logic gates is proposed. The 74181 is a 4-bit slice arithmetic logic unit (ALU), implemented as a 7400 series TTL integrated circuit. The classical set of gates such as AND, OR, and EXOR are not reversible. The arithmetic logic unit is that part of the CPU that handles all the calculations the CPU may need. The voltage level logic scheme (with its half H-bridge drivers) is the default to keep the relay count low (and is the scheme used when relays drive other relays), but the open-circuit scheme (with its lower cost peripheral drivers) is used where semiconductors do not have to drive relay exclusive-OR gates or flip-flops. Despite so much power packed in the beast , at the very basic level, the chip is nothing more than a mesh of gates (gates as in AND,OR,NOR,NAND,XOR,XNOR). Last time, an Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU) is designed and implemented in VHDL. Design the ALU using the smallest MUX possible. 1 Bit – ALU The digital function that implements the micro-operations on the information stored in registers is commonly called an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). function-select. Digital Design ALU using logic gates. Analysis focus on reduce the time delay so this 2-bit ALU by using the latest version of Pspice software where the full-adder is also designed by logic gate. Half subtractor is used to perform two binary digits subtraction. Keep in mind that each of these can be made from transistors by combining them in different ways. Tile panels are typically 0. Logicly - alu. An Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs Arithmetic operations on input numbers like Addition, Subtraction, Division, Multiplication, & digital Gates operations like AND, OR, NOT, or any other operation you want. Verilog is used for the implementation. The D input to the adder–subtractor above would be one such control line from the control unit. In this paper, an 8-bit ALU based on pass-transistor logic is implemented in PSPICE. Physical Re-Synthesis - transform circuit when placing. The example CPU is one that I designed and implemented in Logisim over about a week at the end of 2010. * documented in the book. Tut 3a: NAND and NOR Logic Gates in VHDL - YouTube. Using Logisim, we put together each piece. North of the ALU, above the internal databus and below the clock/reset logic, is instruction decoding, fed from the 2-to-16 decoder to its left. Here, we show a DNA arithmetic logic unit (ALU) consisting of elemental DNA logic gates using polymerase-mediated strand displacement. This program is quite complete in that it includes a comprehensive set of elementary to advanced functions: Inverters, And gates, Or gates, Xor gates, ALU's (Arithmetic Logic Units), Flip Flops, Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, RAM (Random Access Memory), etc. logicly Input Controls Toggle Switch Push Button Clock High Constant O Low Constant Output Controls Logiu 01 Light Bulb 4-Bit Digit TITIT 900RR 8909 Logic Gates FO F1 Dcd4 0000 Buffer NOT Gate AND Gate NAND Gate OR Gate NOR Gate 2. I made a truth table as a start, then I came up with an ALU model, but I am not too confident with it. In this paper we describes 8-bit ALU using low power 11-transistor full adder (FA) and Gate diffusion input (GDI) based multiplexer. Logic gates are building a block of ALU. Now, convert the circuit in to code. add nand bitwise operation because every logic gates can be built from this. Implementatio of 8-bit ALU n using VHDL includes a behavioral and structural description The top leve. Electrical lab Autumn term Digital Logic Experiment 4 2. It takes two inputs of 16 bits wide and performs Logic and Arithmetic’s operations. The 8085 uses a different complex gate arrangement. Keywords:- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU); Gate Diffusion Input (GDI); Full-Swing GDI. INTRODUCTION. Digital Logic Digital logic is a wide-open and rapidly-growing field, and yet every single digital device operates on some combination of three basic logic functions: AND, OR, and NOT. The mode control input M selects logical (M = High) or arithmetic (M = Low) operations. In digital processor logical and arithmetic operation executes using ALU. Gates are the fundamental building blocks of digital logic circuitry. You'll use this circuit in the design of the Beta later this semester. The ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) is the part of a CPU that actually does calculations and condition testing. Verilog code for the ALU: /* ALU Arithmetic and Logic Operations. Arithmetic Logic Unit is one of the most important digital logic components in CPUs. A31 B31 Result 31. These gates are used in Integrated circuit represent binary input as 'ON' and 'OFF' state. Design of ALU : ALU or Arithmetic Logical Unit is a digital circuit to do arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction,division, multiplication and logical oparations like and, or, xor, nand, nor etc. It can be made faster by using a faster logic family. Simple microprocessors such as those found in home appliances often contain only one ALU, while the modern Central Processing Units (CPUs) and Graphics. In this research work the power flow analysis of clock gated ALU circuits is analyzed and optimization of clock gated ALU power supply unit is done through special handing technique. An Undergraduate Design Experience in Digital Logic Design Course of Special Purpose Arithmetic Logic Unit Using Multisim, Ultiboard and Print Circuit Board Qasem Abu Al-Haija 1, Hasan Al-Amri , Mohamed Al-Nashri & Sultan Al-Muhaisen1 Logic gates and chips, Karnaugh maps as well as combinational logic design which can be mapped to several. I am trying to create a simple, structural, 8-bit ALU model that is capable of doing two's complement arithmetic (addition and subtraction) and that can do the logic functions NAND and NOR. Background - A boolean expression has a truth-value of either TRUE or FALSE. Esther Rani, M. 200 MHz frequency. Before watching it's helpful to understand: - How a binary adde. Individual logic gates can be connected together to form combinational or sequen-tial circuits, larger logic gate functions. Show the truth table for this function. Hence, the clock can be provided to that. Ternary gates are implemented using enhancement / depletion MOSFET technology, thus proposed ALU is suitable for LSI / VLSI implementation. Reversible Logic has attained importance in the recent developments of high speed and low power digital systems. This Arithmetic Logic Unit, like the other ALU, is used as a fundamental block of many types of computing circuits including CPU, FPU and. Once all the ALU components had been designed they just had to be put together and. ALU is having collection of two types of operations: Arithmetic operations Logical operations Consider an ALU having 4 arithmetic operations and 4 logical operation. In our design, the full Adders are realized using synthesizable, low quantum cost, low garbage output DPeres gates. The basic operations are implemented in hardware level. Let us draw the diagram of multiplexer first. The 74181 represents an evolutionary step between the CPUs of the 1960s, which were constructed using discrete logic gates, and. In Arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the output of ALU can be stored in storage unit (multiple registers) by using Demultiplexer. This paper considers and designed sub-blocks such as Adder/subtraction block, 4-bit multiplier, Magnitude Comparator and Multiplexers using Proteus. The operations performed by an ALU are. using chains of coupled chaotic elements to perform arithmetic operations. INTRODUCTION The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a fundamental building block of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a Computer. ALU devices, an addition cost of 2 is incurred per bit in order to propagate S1 and S2 to other bits. Logic Gates - Building an ALU 1 Introduction We start with a tutorial that teaches you how to build an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) from scratch, using a handful of simple logic gates and other components. LIBRARY IEEE;-- Include Libraries for standard logic data types USE IEEE. Create a 1-bit full adder as a new circuit (Project→Add Circuit). You'll use this circuit in the design of the Beta later this semester. Logic Synthesis Compiles HDL into gates 1. Full Adder using NAND Gates. Is it a binary calculator ? Is it a decimal calculator ? and again how much Digit of the inputs?. Arithmetic Logical Unit is the very important subsystem in the digital system design. Digital Logic Digital logic is a wide-open and rapidly-growing field, and yet every single digital device operates on some combination of three basic logic functions: AND, OR, and NOT. The ALU shown below is a 1-bit ALU with the functions: ADD, AND, XOR. transforming two input word-sized bit strings into an output which is the sum of the two inputs. Once I had completed the basic logic gates, I could create the more advanced logic structures. In addition to that: ctrl needs to be 4-bits wide. Rameshwar Rao, designed an area optimized low power arithmetic and logic unit in which Arithmetic Logic Unit is implemented using logic gates, pass transistor logic, as well as GDI technique III. Introduction ALU is the fundamental building block of the processor, which is responsible for carrying out the arithmetic and logic functions. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an impor tant part of microprocessor. CEDAR LS is an interactive digital logic simulator to be used for teaching of logic design or testing simple digital designs. It can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic elements like optics, molecule etc. This tutorial will teach you how to build an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) from scratch, using these simple logic gates and other components. Arithmetic logic unit is using these realized gates. ALL; ENTITY NAND_GATE IS file in out in vhdl vhdl adder vhdl alu vhdl datapath vhdl half adder. University. Schematic of 2-bit magnitude comparator using CMOS logic style is given in Fig. to implement a Subtractor that is capable of subtracting the second number from the first, by converting the second number into its 2's complement form and then adding the resulting number to the first number. Logic gates are implemented using diodes or transistors. (The other universal logic gate is NOR. Here I’ve used a NAND gate in place of the inverter and also swapped the AND gates to NAND gates. STD_LOGIC_1164. Below is a 1-bit ALU designed using logicly. The MG gate is utilized in the implementation of a novel arithmetic logic unit based on those proposed in [8]. The logic functions (AND, OR, NOT) are each carried out by a single gate of the appropriate type and arithmetic is carried out by a full-adder. The results show that the proposed design consume less power using less number of transistors, while achieving full swing operation compared to previous work. Learn about the heart of a simple 4-bit CPU, the ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), and how to build one, yourself. Using the reconfigurable logic of multi-input floating gate MOSFETs, a 4-bit ALU has been designed for 3V operation. 3 Design of a 4-bit ALU using Proteus. 02: Introduction to Computer Architecture Reading Assignment: B5, 3. The digital comparator accomplishes this using several logic gates that operate on the principles of Boolean Algebra. Thus, the adder is designed with 4bit carry-look ahead adder circuit. Now design a circuit to create the encoder with a single 74’153 chip and, only if necessary, the gates available on 74’00 and/or 74’02 ICs. In binary (we are using 2 bit) i have for 1-1, which is 01-01. The full-adder is usually a component in a cascade of adders, Half adder & full adder half adder & full adder. The use of an enzyme resulted in highly efficient logic gates. A 4×1 and a 2×1 multiplexer were used to design an ALU. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is one of the most important components of any system and is used in many appliances like calculators, cell phones, and computers. The purpose of this lab is to design, simulate, and implement an Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) using a Hardware Description Language (HDL). After the simulation process the hardware equivalent of the software program using synthesis technique is done using Spartan-3 FPGA. But the result for 1+1 is 10. Once I had completed the basic logic gates, I could create the more advanced logic structures. A New ALU chip design is proposed using D3L. By using reversible logic gates instead of using traditional logic gates such as AND gates and OR gates, a reversible ALU whose function is the same as the traditional ALU is constructed. In this week's tutorial we are going to look at a simple hardwired CPU, to demonstrate that the control logic in a CPU can be built using some simple gates and multiplexors. Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abstract 1. Design of ALU using reversible logic based Low Power Vedic Multiplier. In synchronous logic (logic that is driven by a clock signal), the critical path is the slowest logic path in the circuit. The four select inputs (S0, S1, S2, and S3) select the desired logical or arithmetic functions, which. As an important part of a complex design,. Esther Rani, M. Asha Rani, Dr. The inputs and outputs are similar as 2-Bit Adder, except the buses are now 4 bits wide. All of the Full adders are made by Gate diffusion input. A known fact that an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is one of the core components of a the CPU in a computer. Binary Decoder The simplest and most commonly used Decoders are the n-to-2 n Decoders. Outputs may be high (1) or low (0). Proposed Alu Design The proposed ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) has been designed using adder, subtractor, multiplier and logic gates like AND gate. From simple gates to complex sequential circuits, plot timing diagrams, automatic circuit generation, explore standard ICs, and much more - for free! CircuitVerse contains most primary circuit elements from both combinational and sequential circuit design. Open_collector_NANDs are a good choice, when using PNP/NPN_transistors. Each line of 16 opcodes is decoded separately. In this paper, a design constructing the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) based on reversible logic gates as logic components is proposed. A 1-bit output Z is produced for each operation, and a carry is also produced for the case of addition. Logic Synthesis Compiles HDL into gates 1. ALU is one of the most important components of CPU that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. They can be found at the heart of every digital computer and are one of the most important parts of a CPU (Central Processing Unit). VHDL code for all logic gates using dataflow method – full code and explanation: VHDL code for half adder & full adder using dataflow method – full code & explanation: VHDL code for full subtractor & half subtractor using dataflow method – full code & explanation: VHDL code for multiplexer using dataflow method – full code and explanation. This version of the ALU implements Arithmetic, Logic, and Branch operations, as well as incrementing the PC and the bypass of a value. The results show that the proposed design consume less power using less number of transistors, while achieving full swing operation compared to previous work. Introduction. The solution that ONLY uses a mux with no extra gates is a 16 to 1 mux. It performs all the. The ALU is a combinational logic unit. Keywords —Clock gate, ALU, FPGA, LUT, clock power, register transfer level, dynamic power, leakage power I. A simplified ALU is illustrated in Fig 5. Transistors are used to create logic gates, including NOT, OR, AND, and XOR. 0 Electronic gates Logical expressions may be evaluated electronically using circuits called gates. gates) high levels of abstraction design for test reuse and IP portability. The presented reversible ALU reduces the information bits' use and loss by. INTRODUCTION. Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abstract 1. ALU of digital computers is an aspect of logic design with the objective of developing appropriate. which a gate is not available. The most significant aspect of the TSG gate is that it can work singly as a reversible full adder, that is reversible full adder can now be implemented with a single gate only. The proposed ALU design is verified and its advantages over the only existing ALU design are quantitatively analyzed. frequency reduction, capacitance reduction, clock gating, using adiabatic logic and energy recovery logic. The ALU and top-level specifications were written in the Boyer-Moore logic. You are commenting using your WordPress. Half subtractor is used to perform two binary digits subtraction. After logic minimization, the output will be simpler. There are also types that can switch their inputs to multiple outputs and have. Ask Question Asked 3 years, 1 month ago. The levels of gate for digital can add to more delay E. A simplified ALU is illustrated in Fig 5. By using AND and OR gates, We could easily generate ALU_OP. A logic unit performing 8 bit logic operations was built using logic cells available in the IC cell library and was found to have a high operating frequency close to 1GHz. Or function c. Is it a binary calculator ?. Before watching it's helpful to understand: - How a binary adde. The example CPU is one that I designed and implemented in Logisim over about a week at the end of 2010. Two distinct clock signals are there:clk_g is the ordinary gated signal driving the registers, while clk is driving the latches of the clock gaters. It consists of eight inputs each for two four bit numbers and three outputs to generate less than, equal to and greater than between two binary numbers. Abstract: Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an important part of microprocessor. For example, if you wish to add two binary numbers, it is the ALU that is responsible for producing the result. Left shift: the Generate LU is set to the desired logic function,. ALU is one of the most important components of CPU that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. logic gates and flip-flops used, also special techniques are used for speeding up operations and performing several operations in parallel. An ALU is a combinational logic circuit, meaning that its outputs will change asynchronously in response to input changes. startingelectronics. ALU is having collection of two types of operations: There are several logic gates exists in digital logic circuit. Reversible logic is one of the emerging research areas having its application in the fields of Quantum computing, Optical computing, DNA computing, Nanotechnology, Cryptography, Bioinformatics etc. Using the chipset that we've built in the previous module, we will now proceed to build a family of adders -- chips designed to add numbers. Controlling a calculator display with logic gates. The ALU is at the very core of the CPU that's powering your machine right now. control different logic circuits like the ALU and memory to perform these operations. n-Bit Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit The 3-bit ALU in Fig. a fundamental component of all processors 7. Adding Overflow/Zero Detection Logic • For a N-bit ALU: Overflow = CarryIn[N - 1] XOR CarryOut[N - 1] A31 B31 1-bit ALU Result31 A0 B0 1-bit ALU Result0 CarryIn0 CarryOut0 A1 B1 1-bit ALU Result1 CarryIn1 CarryOut1 A2 B2 1-bit ALU Result2 CarryIn2 CarryIn3 CarryOut31:: CarryIn31 CarryOut30 C:::: Zero Overflow. add nand bitwise operation because every logic gates can be built from this. Take for example, the logic gate diagram below. Homework Equations. The 74181 is a 7400 series medium-scale integration (MSI) TTL integrated circuit, containing the equivalent of 75 logic gates and most commonly packaged as a 24-pin DIP. The way that FPGAs are able to do Boolean algebra is by using Look-Up Tables (LUTs). Your circuit should directly implement the given expressions (do not reorganize the expression to 'optimize' it), using NOT gates and 2-input AND, OR, and XOR gates. 4 shows a model of a 2-input 8-bit AND gate in Logisim. 1 Operation table for a 4-bit ALU. Below is a 1-bit ALU designed using logicly. These gates are the AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR gates. INTRODUCTION The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a fundamental building block of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a Computer. Redditor Builds 8-Bit ALU Using Only NAND Gates and a Lot of Time How computers work, on an actual physical level, can be quite difficult to understand. Single-bit Full Adder circuit and Multi-bit addition using Full Adder is also shown. Learning about Logic Gates and Circuits. It's built from MSI TTL chips that contain a bunch of gates. Logic: the Generate LU (Logic Unit) produces Zero, and the Propagate LU is set to the desired logic function. Multi- input floating gate (MIFG) transistors have been promising in realizing increased functionality on a chip. Modern CPUs contain very powerful and complex ALUs. The ALU was designed. Design of the ALU Adder, Logic, and the Control Unit This lecture will finish our look at the CPU and ALU of the computer. and digital circuits. Check out the 74181 ALU, it supports both modes. The ALU gets operands from the register file or memory. The operations performed by an ALU are controlled by a set of. 1 Bit – ALU The digital function that implements the micro-operations on the information stored in registers is commonly called an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). A comparator used to compare two binary numbers each of four bits is called a 4-bit magnitude comparator. Open_collector_NANDs are a good choice, when using PNP/NPN_transistors. Five control signals, w i (i = 0, 4), de ne the opcodes for the ALU (see Table 2). Design of ALU using reversible logic based Low Power Vedic Multiplier. It takes two inputs of 16 bits wide and performs Logic and Arithmetic's operations. The simulation results are shown below figures. I'm building an 8-bit computer using the Ben Eater's videos and I would like to improve the ALU, e. This can be accomplished by feeding each bit of the result into a NOR gate. ALU using structural modeling. The presented reversible ALU reduces the information bits' use and loss by. Abstract In this paper, a design constructing the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) based on reversible logic gates as logic components is proposed. For example, if you wish to add two binary numbers, it is the ALU that is responsible for producing the result. The logic gates in the clock edge processing and pulse generation unit can be built using digital CMOS processes. A first single bit reversible ALU and second single bit ALU are designed and Then 16 single bit ALU's are cascaded together. CNOT gates are used as XORs to negate the lines wherever necessary, and Fredkin gates are used as MUXes. 1Design of a 3-bit ALU using Proteus: A case study 2. Logic gates are the basic building blocks of any digital system. Logic gates are implemented by using transistors, diodes, relays, optics and molecules or even by several mechanical elements. Proposed Alu Design The proposed ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) has been designed using adder, subtractor, multiplier and logic gates like AND gate. Owing to its unique technique of one-to-one mapping between the inputs and the corresponding outputs, the reversible logic gates are now finding profound as well as promising applications in emerging growing paradigms such as quantum computing, quantum dot cellular automata,. Figure3-Logic for R2 Gate IV. The ALU is designed using PSPCIE hierarchy. Four-bit Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) Abstract - The project is an attempt to portray the skills of NGSpice attainted over the semester with simulation of a complex circuit. Take for example, the logic gate diagram below. Check out the 74181 ALU, it supports both modes. See below for more detailed instructions. The control unit causes the CPU to do what the program says to do. Constructing a Basic Arithmetic Logic Unit 01 add 0 10 sub 1 10 slt 1 11 MIPS ALU Most-significant bit Function Bnegate Operation and Architecture Subject – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. I'm building an 8-bit computer using the Ben Eater's videos and I would like to improve the ALU, e. In computing, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. Using the chipset that we've built in the previous module, we will now proceed to build a family of adders -- chips designed to add numbers. All the outputs from the gates should be wire. In this paper, we are using some reversible gates which help us to perform logical and arithmetic operations. That circuit works correctly according to the unit tests that I setup (using the Active High Data truth table). Modern CPUs contain very powerful and complex ALU. VHDL code for the ALU is fully presented. and It works! There are no random delay in my simulator. TAKE A LOOK : BOOLEAN LOGIC. Building a 1-bit ALU Building a simple 1-bit ALU from logic gates and the other structures we previously built. The half subtractor truth table explanation can be done by using the logic gates like EX-OR logic gate and AND gate operation followed by NOT gate. Implement the logic for the Control signal 1. as a gate which, once every computational step, produces a value of ‘0’ or ‘1’ on its. In digital electronics, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and bit-wise logical operations on integer binary numbers. The ALU receives the information from the registers and performs a given operation as specifies by the. Assume the XOR gate is implemented using 4 NAND gates as shown below. But the result for 1+1 is 10. The latest ALU design featured two Logic Units, set between the Adder and the inputs. In Arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the output of ALU can be stored in storage unit (multiple registers) by using Demultiplexer. North of the ALU, above the internal databus and below the clock/reset logic, is instruction decoding, fed from the 2-to-16 decoder to its left. In this paper we describes 8-bit ALU using. This ALU is implemented using C-MOS ternary logic gates (T-Gates) for ternary arithmetic & logic circuits. Inverter is basic CMOS inverter. Figure3-Logic for R2 Gate IV. The levels of gate for digital can add to more delay E. As Figure 1 shows, a 1-bit ALU can be constructed using a full-adder, two multiplexors and a few gates. This paper presents a novel design of Arithmetic & Logical Unit using Reversible control unit. Tech mapping - map optimized circuit to available library components May require "re-synthesis" 4. These devices function by “opening” or “closing” to admit or reject the passage of. So it's just built with AND gates and a multi-way OR gate, and this is just the example showing how the AND gates work for those cases. Logic: the Generate LU (Logic Unit) produces Zero, and the Propagate LU is set to the desired logic function. This version of the ALU implements Arithmetic, Logic, and Branch operations, as well as incrementing the PC and the bypass of a value. 4 AOI Logic. The circuit is that of an arithmetic logical unit which can perform adding and subtracting, along with all the 4 logic gate operations. this register is used to store to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic & logical operation. Do not use any items from the Memory, Plexers, Arithmetic, or Legacy libraries. Create logic circuit to simulate it or use any of the pre-loaded designs to simulate. It performs the computer processor computations. In this video we go over the design for the Arithmetic and Logic Unit for our 8-bit computer. Building a simple 1-bit ALU from logic gates and the other structures we previously built. Basic logic gates forms the fundamentals of electronic systems. In this lesson, we have constructed a 4-bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), building upon the knowledge gained in designing adders and half-adders. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessor Logic gates; 12. The ALU is at the very core of the CPU that's powering your machine right now. Lebeck CPS 104 7 F = ~a*b + ~b*a a b F a b XOR(a,b) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Review: Boolean Functions, Gates and Circuits. Then carry-look ahead adder is designed with some reversible logic gates. This design uses six transistor CMOS XOR and XNOR gates. While you can always implement a truth table by ORing ANDed terms, with NOTs in the right places, it's usually not the most efficient. You may need to add some wire, regs, or any other logic gates as needed. Electrical lab Autumn term Digital Logic Experiment 4 2. and optical computing. ) First, we focus at the XOR at the ALU output: For the AND/XOR_example, an active AND gate (all inputs 1) will turn the ALU output to 0. PDP 11/44 Data Paths Board with four ALU chips: this was the last PDP-11 processor to be constructed using discrete logic gates Image credit to Bruce Ray (Wild Hare Computer Systems, Inc. The full adder is constructed using two peres gates. Keep in mind that each of these can be made from transistors by combining them in different ways. The reason for which the computers are capable of performing complex operation is due to the interconnection of these logic gates. In this paper, we use a technique called Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) whichhelps in reducing the number of transistors required to build a design. * documented in the book. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. An ALU is a combinational circuit that performs arithmetic and logic operations on a pair of n-bit operands. An ALU or an Arithmetic Logic Unit is the part of any microprocessor that does the arithmetic and logical operations. Here I’ve used a NAND gate in place of the inverter and also swapped the AND gates to NAND gates. Or function c. Recent advances in reversible logic using and quantum computer algorithms allow for improved computer architecture and arithmetic logic unit designs. In some processors, the ALU is divided into two units, an arithmetic unit (AU) and a logic unit (LU). Sornalatha An Efficient Design of Optimized Low Power Dual Mode Logic Circuits Using VLSI Technology T. Before watching it's helpful to understand: - How a binary adde. A 4-bit CLA block can be designed in the following way using gates from only lib3. Calculators can do all the things they need to do using different combinations of logic gates. In this paper, a design constructing the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) based on reversible logic gates as logic components is proposed. C = A · B 2. Unit 2 Synthesizing the ALU Synthesis Concepts. The circuit below represents a simple 1-bit ALU. Someone evidently forgot to tell [Notbookies], for he has made a complete 8-bit ALU using only 4011B quad NAND gates on a set of breadboards, and in doing so has created a minor masterpiece with. This technique helps in reducing power consumption and power dissipation. Re: Designing a calculator using ALU If this is an assignment, I suspect they are looking for you to do the division/multiplication using the addition/subtraction. These logic gates functions similar to binary switches and the only signals that they deal with are 0’s and 1’s. A 4×1 and a 2×1 multiplexer were used to design an ALU. With the help of half adder, we can design circuits that are capable of performing simple addition with the help of logic gates. The name of the project: ALU_1bit; The name of the top-level design: ALU_1bit; Add a new Verilog HDL file, type and finish the Verilog code shown in the following code. Before the microprocessor aly, minicomputers built their processors from boards of individual chips. The use of an enzyme resulted in highly efficient logic gates. of arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) using Hardware Description Language (HDL) using Xilinx ISE 9. The designed technique used here requires only two stages i. C = A · B 2. It normally executes logic and arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc. The figure 2 shows a transmission gate full adder which is generated by using 14 transistors. These gates are the AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR gates. This can be accomplished by feeding each bit of the result into a NOR gate. In this Main circuit, you needed a 2-bit ALU. Arithmetic block: this block is used to perform arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction and. A new VLSI architecture for ALU using reversible logic gates is proposed. Lab 7 - Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design Using VHDL. By using reversible logic gates instead of using traditional logic gates such as AND gates and OR gates, a reversible ALU whose function is the same as the traditional ALU is constructed. Logic gates. Thus, the adder is designed with 4bit carry-look ahead adder circuit. Single-bit Full Adder circuit and Multi-bit addition using Full Adder is also shown. Binary Decoder The simplest and most commonly used Decoders are the n-to-2 n Decoders. This ALU is implemented using C-MOS ternary logic gates (T-Gates) for ternary arithmetic & logic circuits. % -DLQ&R( &KDQGZDG UDPSJDZDQGH #JPDLO FRP 2Department of E&TC , 61-%¶V. The Minecraft Map, ALU- Arithmetic Logic Unit, was posted by Kernul. Adding Overflow/Zero Detection Logic • For a N-bit ALU: Overflow = CarryIn[N - 1] XOR CarryOut[N - 1] A31 B31 1-bit ALU Result31 A0 B0 1-bit ALU Result0 CarryIn0 CarryOut0 A1 B1 1-bit ALU Result1 CarryIn1 CarryOut1 A2 B2 1-bit ALU Result2 CarryIn2 CarryIn3 CarryOut31:: CarryIn31 CarryOut30 C:::: Zero Overflow. Testing the ALU In this lab's design problem (see above), you'll be building a 32-bit arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations on 32-bit operands, producing a 32-bit result. ALU is one of the most important components of CPU that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. logic output. Note, the AND gates in figure 29 decode the opcode field i. The designed ALU can generate up to seven Arithmetic operations and four logical operations. Two distinct clock signals are there:clk_g is the ordinary gated signal driving the registers, while clk is driving the latches of the clock gaters. to obtain our 8-bit ALU. It normally executes logic and arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc. Functionally, the operation of typical ALU is represented as shown in diagram below, Controlled by the three function select inputs (sel 2 to 0), ALU can perform all the 8 possible logic. Abstract In this paper, a design constructing the Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) based on reversible logic gates as logic components is proposed. One simple way is using decoders to decode OP code and function field. The main aim of the design in this paper is to improve the ALU. Figure below shows a 1-bit ALU derived by. Logic: the Generate LU (Logic Unit) produces Zero, and the Propagate LU is set to the desired logic function. Add six gates for the Selection Decoder (refer to the 4 Bit CPU ALU issues) and I get 115 gates. Introduction. 1 shows the truth table for the ALU control function that was developed in Section 4. The 74181 is a 7400 series medium-scale integration (MSI) TTL integrated circuit, containing the equivalent of 75 logic gates and most commonly packaged as a 24-pin DIP. The inputs and outputs are similar as 2-Bit Adder, except the buses are now 4 bits wide. This research presents a 4-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which was designed using TLGs through reconfigurable logic blocks with a universal circuit configured with three stages based on a floating-gate metal oxide semiconductor transistor with more than one control gate, which was named neu-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (ν-CMOS). We begin by reviewing the binary adder, and discussing ways to speed it up. In this paper we describes 8-bit ALU using low power 11-transistor full adder (FA) and Gate diffusion input (GDI) based multiplexer. I am trying to create a simple, structural, 8-bit ALU model that is capable of doing two's complement arithmetic (addition and subtraction) and that can do the logic functions NAND and NOR. And some examples of logical operations are AND, NOT, NOR, and XOR operations. Most techniques involve computing a set of partial products, and then summing the partial products together. using chains of coupled chaotic elements to perform arithmetic operations. Digital Logic Final Exam Review T/F Q's boolean equations and truth tables for logic gates. This video shows the NAND gate and then the NOR gate implemented on the home made CPLD board. Some functions operated on both inputs, such as the 'AND' operation. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. using Xilinx-ISE. Logic inputs selectable using SPDT switches & logic output indicators & IC 74181. Before we get to the overall design of an ALU, we first have to understand the basics of logic gates. You must package the ALU so that it conforms to the interface given in Figure 1. Your task is to create an arithmetic logic unit, which is a combinational system that takes in two numbers as inputs and outputs the result of performing an. The Arithmetic and Logic Unit. Arithmetic logic unit is using these realized gates. logic gates is proposed. Functions in this block are performed using the basic logic gates. consist of 4x1 and 2x1 multiplexers and ALU is implemented by using full adder. In this article I’ll build a TNAND gate and TAND gate, analogous to the binary NAND gate and AND gate. It consists of eight inputs each for two four bit numbers and three outputs to generate less than, equal to and greater than between two binary numbers. decoder & T-gates, as against three. In this paper, two types of reversible ALU designs are proposed and verified using Altera Quartus II software. This paper considers and designed sub-blocks such as Adder/subtraction block, 4-bit multiplier, Magnitude Comparator and Multiplexers using Proteus. Wikipedia] The logic gate diagram example "2-bit ALU" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Electrical Engineering solution from the Engineering area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. Abstract Arithmetic logic unit is the core of any CPU that can be pa: rt of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. A simplified ALU is illustrated in Fig 5. Or function c. Redditor Builds 8-Bit ALU Using Only NAND Gates and a Lot of Time How computers work, on an actual physical level, can be quite difficult to understand. Simplest combination of logic gates to produce a given set of outputs. ALU has a bunch of flags that are really useful!. Nowadays reversible logic circuits are gaining fascinating attraction in many fields. 1 Bit – ALU The digital function that implements the micro-operations on the information stored in registers is commonly called an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In Appendix C we show that any digital logic circuit can be made from only three types of basic gates: AND, OR, and NOT. Each “2+” is a 2-bit adder and made of two full adders. We now have the parts we need to build a simple arithmetic logic unit that combines an adder-subtractor with three simple logic gates using a multiplexer. ##### There are many other ways to do this. This visualization of some possible inputs and the resulting outputs for and and or gates should help: There are a few other logic gates in addition to these three. Design of ALU Using Reversible Logic Gates Ramprasad Gawande 1, Vishal Wankhede 2 1Department of E&TC , 61-%¶V. 5) 4 input NOR operation using dynamic NOR gate (op. These are the arithmetic operations (addition and subtraction) and the logical operations (AND, OR, XOR and NOT) that are done during execution of the corresponding machine instructions. We can classify these Logic gates into the following three categories. 3 Design of a 4-bit ALU using Proteus. Depending on how the ALU is designed, it can make the CPU more powerful, but it also consumes more energy and creates more heat. The proposed reversible logic-based ALU is implemented using a Mentor Graphics tool in 130 nm technology for power efficiency. Hence, the Logic gates are the building blocks of any digital system. Figure3-Logic for R2 Gate IV. These basic gates were provided in SSI chips using. The full-adder is usually a component in a cascade of adders, Half adder & full adder half adder & full adder. 02: Introduction to Computer Architecture Reading Assignment: B5, 3. A variety of computer arithmetic techniques can be used to implement a digital multiplier. Due to this reason logic gates can also be considered as electronic circuits. And some examples of logical operations are AND, NOT, NOR, and XOR operations. The ALU can perform four arithmetic and four logical operations. The ALU is a combinational logic unit. Here, we have drawin just one one bit of this unit, with data inputs a i , b i and c i , data outputs s i and c i+1 , an f 2 input to control the add-subtract function of the adder, and two. Open_collector_NANDs are a good choice, when using PNP/NPN_transistors. In this proposed plan ALU is embedded using decoder controlled combinational circuits structured using reversible logic gates. The logical gates which will be used are AND and OR and NOT and XOR. Carry select circuitry using NAND gates. In computing, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. Today, fpga4student presents the Verilog code for the ALU. Verilog Code for SR-FF Gate level; verilog code for D latch and testbench; Verilog Code for D-FF Behavioral level; verilog code for D latch and testbench; Verilog Code for JK-FF Gate level: verilog code for D flipflop and testbench; ALU. It consists of eight inputs each for two four bit numbers and three outputs to generate less than, equal to and greater than between two binary numbers. The Arithmetic and Logic Unit is designed using the proposed gates. The design of an ALU includes logical operations which are implemented with simple gates to operate independently. These gates are used in Integrated circuit represent binary input as 'ON' and 'OFF' state. Introduction. org // and the book "The Elements of Computing Systems" // by Nisan and Schocken, MIT Press. ALU design VI. This paper presents a novel design of Arithmetic & Logical Unit using Reversible control unit. Lab 7 - Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design Using VHDL. 253 TOTAL POWER (mW) 233 184 DYNAMIC POWER (mW) 147 98 Table. a fundamental component of all processors 7. Let us have a look at a simple 1 bit ALU to understand the concept. Logic gates and truth table: In digital electronics, logic gates are the certain type of physical devices basically used to express the Boolean functions. An Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. Here, we will be using sequential approach for designing ALU in verilog. In this paper, we use a technique called Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) whichhelps in reducing the number of transistors required to build a design. It does calculations and logical processing and then passes this information to a register. the result of an operation is stored in the accumulator. 24, includes the jump instruction. While there are several ways of creating this gate out of circuitry, we have chosen the transistor-transistor logic (TTL) method. to obtain our 8-bit ALU. The logic circuitry in this units is entirely combinational (i. On the east, below the seq0-7 logic, is the main state machine with 4 latches for EXECUTE, INTERRUPT, FETCH, and DMA. Tech mapping - map optimized circuit to available library components May require "re-synthesis" 4. To Do Draw a block level diagram of the MIPS 32-bit ALU, based on the description in the textbook. It has two four bit data inputs and a carry input. the programmer could use the set to implement any logic operation. consists of gates with no feedback and no flip-flops). Five control input bits specify which of the 16 logic operations and 16 arithmetic operations will be performed. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. ALU design VI. Do not use any items from the Memory, Plexers, Arithmetic, or Legacy libraries. An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to perform arithmetic and logic operations. The ALU was designed. Here, we will be using sequential approach for designing ALU in verilog. Hi, I love this Bitmap Logic Simulator very much, so I re-implemented it in minecraft: I use 2600 NOT gates to build this computer. \$\begingroup\$ For a larger number of bits would using alternating NOR and NAND gates make sense? E. I case you have forgotten why I an not using XOR gates or MSI logic, this work is in preparation for a possible transistor CPU, so it uses SSI NAND gates. With this reason, we call the proposed gate as Arithmetic Logic Gate (ALG) and its important benchmarks are compared and discussed. Keywords— Reversible circuit design, 2’s Complement, Comparator, Adder, Subtractor, Multiplier, Revers. 1 Operation table for a 4-bit ALU. Problems: 7. Let us have a look at a simple 1 bit ALU to understand the concept. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), combining gates of different logic to the same circuit, in an effort to obtain improved performance compared to CMOS. The logical gates which will be used are AND and OR and NOT and XOR. The central processing unit of a computer contains an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) to perform operations. Large-scale logic circuits can be constructed from the gates by simple cascading strategies. Here, we show a DNA arithmetic logic unit (ALU) consisting of elemental DNA logic gates using polymerase-mediated strand displacement. Functionally, the operation of typical ALU is represented as shown in diagram below, Controlled by the three function select inputs (sel 2 to 0), ALU can perform all the 8 possible logic. Now that we can do binary addition by hand, lets recreate a very simple arithmetic logic unit that'll do the same. These devices function by “opening” or “closing” to admit or reject the passage of. There are two main types of Digital Comparator available and these are. thanks for quest, The "Calculator" what your looking for is not clear, Usage Logic gates it all depend on what's your requirement. In this paper, a 2*2 Swap gate which is a reduced implementation in terms of quantum cost and delay to the previous Swap gate is presented.
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